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Docker is a platform for developers and sysadmins to build, run, and share applications with containers. The use of containers to deploy applications is called containerization. Containers are not new, but their use for easily deploying applications is.

The Docker daemon (dockerd) listens for Docker API requests and manages Docker objects such as images, containers, networks, and volumes.

Docker Features:

Lightweight containers spin up fast and optimally use system resources
Docker daemon (dockerd) manages Docker objects such as images, containers, networks, and volumes
Docker registry to store Docker images
REST API which specifies interfaces that programs can use to talk to the daemon and instruct it what to do
Command line interface (CLI) client (the docker command)
Namespaces provide a layer of isolation
Control groups to limit applications to a set of resources
Union file systems (UnionFS)
Container format (libcontainer)
Access to Docker hub public images”